GARLIC, ONION, SHALLOT

Garlic onion and shallots are popular products in the world, which are subject of important trade and that the standard definition is needed more. The production and sale are marked by intense price competition and quality.
The market is demanding on the specificity of the product: sufficient caliber, good dressing, batch homogeneity.
The gains and efficiency are important for farms that have specialized in this production.Thus they control today different stages of cultivation: soil preparation, variety selection, irrigation management and fertilization.
Important specific investments are essential for its success.

THE CHOICE OF GROUND

Wet spring conditions often degrade soil structure at the critical time of installation of the culture. This explains the importance to be given to the choice of soil and the preservation of their structure during land preparation.

SOIL PREPARATION

Good soil preparation provides a homogeneous population and promotes rooting. It determines the result of the culture.

VARIETIES

The choice of varieties is predominant. It is based on three considerations:
• The agronomic suitability latitude considered ;
• Commercial quality ;
• The timing of marketing

WEED CONTROL OF GARLIC, ONION AND SHALLOT

Weeding is a delicate phase of the culture. Garlic onion and shallots are very sensitive to competition from weeds, plus those this hamper harvest.
Currently, no herbicides alone provides weed control for the duration of the culture. The choice of weed control program should be based weed found in the plot of the previous crop.

PLAN OF FERTILIZATION

Fertilization background must restore an adequate level of fertility.
Fertilization coverage can distribute nitrogen according to the changing needs of the culture. To do this, follow the availability of soil nitrogen during cultivation is required.

CONDUCT OF IRRIGATION

It is not advisable to undertake the production of garlic, onion or shallot without possibility of irrigation.
It is essential to meet the water needs of the crop during the bulbing.

PLANT PROTECTION

Fact sheets are updated annually to allow for effective protection, a necessary condition for successful culture.
Specific information on the biology of pests and pathogens are provided.

MONITORING OF CULTURE

The culture of garlic onion shallots is long. Its delicate implementation requires special supervision to ensure a good stand.
Then it is important to promote the rapid development of foliage to obtain a sufficient number of well-developed leaves before bulbing.
The operation of this device during bulbing leaf determines the magnification of the bulb will determine the final yield.
All the farming operations must be based on reasoned, these requirements ways to avoid hazards due to soil crusting of weeds, pests, diseases, lack of water and nitrogen.

HARVEST

The crop is the crop stage at which the risk of damage for garlic (garlic), shallots, onions, are the most important. It is commonly observed 15 to 20% of injured or stripped. It may be preceded by an anti-germ treatment.

DRYING

Upon entry into cells, a drying process is essential to dry the foliage and remove residual moisture from the bulb. The terms of drying vary with the state of the production. The expertise of the producer shall adapt the action to the current situation.

PRESERVATION

Acceptable storage is provided when the temperature is between 0 C and 4 C, the humidity being about 70 to 75% RH.
Silo ventilated, these conditions are hardly maintained.
They are dependent on climate, the source of cold, and the quality of building insulation.

MERCHANTABILITY

Garlic onion or shallot quality should be dry and firm, without any apparent or latent germination (invisible germ in an equatorial cut).
They are clean and dressed in a uniform coat. They are trimmed properly.
Good storage conditions are needed to have firm and free primer sprouting bulbs.

The quality criteria

Garlic, onion, shallot remain firm until they begin a departure vegetation, following a dormancy. There are differences between varieties.
Accidentally a lack of firmness due to an attack of nematodes during cultivation can result in a spongy structure of the outer scales.
Finally, bacterial rots may also affect scales.

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